hypertension artérielle pulmonaire

Pulmonary arterial hypertension: Definition, cause, consequences

Pulmonary arterial hypertension definition

Rare, pulmonary arterial hypertension or PAH is quite serious. It concerns the small vessels in the lungs. Pulmonary arterial hypertension is defined as an increase in blood pressure in the pulmonary arteries. The increasing pressure disturbs the mechanism of exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen. This is the reason why the patient experiences shortness of breath on exertion. PAH corresponds to a group of diseases which is broken down, according to the possible causes.

hypertension artérielle pulmonaire definition

In case of arterial hypertension, the PAP or Pulmonary Arterial Pressure rises. If it is between 10 and 15 mm Hg in a healthy individual, the PAP goes beyond 25 mm Hg in the hypertensive person. Speaking of blood pressure, what should we understand? The heart ejects blood into the blood vessels. Arterial pressure is the result of this ejection. Two values ​​form it: the low value when the heart relaxes and the high value during contraction.

High blood pressure causes

In some cases of PAH, we can encounter hypertension where the cause remains unidentified. This is idiopathic or primary arterial hypertension. Several causes leading to high blood pressure can still be identified.

Pulmonary arterial hypertension proper

When hypertension results from cases that have already affected the ascendants, it takes the familial form. With hypertensive parents, the risk of contracting PAH is high. Hypertension can result from HIV infection. Subjects dependent on drugs and toxins contract PAH more easily. With Gaucher's disease or myeloproliferative syndromes, one becomes hypertensive more quickly. Newborns are not spared. Persistent pulmonary hypertension can affect them.

hypertension artérielle pulmonaire consequences

Passive PAH

The left heart, which suffers functional complications, results in a disturbance of the mechanism of exchange between oxygen and CO2. In case of diseases of the left ventricle or atrium, hypertension takes place. The same is true for valvular diseases.


With age, the arteries become less and less elastic. The blood pressure then rises inevitably. With a strained lifestyle, the rise in pressure occurs at an accelerated rate. This is what happens with high salt intake and high cholesterol. On the other hand, when the subject adopts a more relaxed way of life, the blood pressure takes time to increase. If the elderly are the most affected by pulmonary arterial hypertension, young people can also suffer from it.

Hypertension due to hormonal disorders

Some hormones in excess lead to hypertension. The adrenal glands, among others, make the subject hypertensive, when there are too many of them in the body. This cause of PAH particularly concerns young people. Hypertension due to hormonal disorders is easy to treat after screening.

High blood pressure, the consequences

The effects of PAH can sometimes be very serious, especially in association with other diseases such as diabetes. There is angina pectoris, kidney damage and heart attack. Visual impairment is one of the consequences of hypertension. Disturbance in the small vessels of the eyes leads to blindness. The legs can suffer the effects of PAH. The arteries narrow and are clogged. At a higher level, there is a risk of amputation.

hypertension artérielle pulmonaire consequences

High blood pressure signs

With PAH, when the patient exerts himself, he feels shortness of breath. It is a consequence of hypertension in 98% of cases. Non-productive cough is one of the signs of pathology. Are you experiencing chest pain? This can mark hypertension. These signs are accompanied by great fatigue and discomfort. Pulmonary arterial hypertension causes palpitations. It can lead to right heart failure. In rarer cases, the subject making the effort to cough is in the presence of blood. This is called low-grade hemoptysis.

High blood pressure clinical signs

A subject suffering from PAH demonstrates a rapid heart during cardiac auscultation. Pulmonary insufficiency is proven by the diastolic murmur. On auscultation of the individual's lungs, this part usually remains normal. The patient may be suffering from kidney failure. In 90% of cases, the chest x-ray shows a lengthening of the cardiac silhouette.

High blood pressure and sleep apnea

Characterized by the more or less prolonged suspension of breathing during sleep, sleep apnea can be distinguished into two types. Consider central sleep apnea syndrome. It is controlled by the brain. Obstructive apnea syndrome, on the other hand, results from the obstruction of breathing. The level of oxygen reaching the lung then decreases considerably when the subject falls asleep. Following sleep apnea, the body feels fatigue and irritability during the day.

Obstructive apneas also lead to increased blood pressure. In general, the subject then suffers from hypertension. The link between sleep apnea and PAH remains a topic of discussion for years. The causes of PAH should guide treatment, whether for high blood pressure natural treatment or other therapeutic strategies.



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