sommeil paradoxal

REM sleep and deep sleep: definition, effect and consequences.

REM Sleep: Definition and Explanation

The definition of paradoxical sleep, also called REM (Rapid Eye Movement) is the shortest phase of sleep, its duration is 15 to 20 minutes and at this time, brain activity is the most intense. Rapid eye movement and muscles are inert (as if paralyzed). Breathing and heartbeat are irregular, brain waves also show an accelerated rhythm. Body temperature is disturbed. This is also the last phase of sleep and during which dreams occur.

During REM sleep, the brain uses much more energy than during wakefulness, which is why the brain needs more oxygen to maintain an accelerated rhythm . The REM sleep is an important stage of sleep, because it allows mental recovery which unlike slow-wave sleep which is physical recovery.

Deep sleep: Definition and explanation

Deep sleep precedes REM sleep, it is the slow wave sleep phase. It occurs after falling asleep and takes place from 30 to 45 minutes. Unlike REM sleep, muscles are more relaxed, pulse and blood pressure decrease, breathing rate and body temperature decrease. Vital signs become regular and eye movements disappear.

sommeil paradoxal enfant

During this phase of deep sleep, sleepwalking and night terrors may occur. This is the most important phase of sleep because it produces growth hormone, which is important for a child's sleep. Deep sleep allows the body to recover from physical fatigue. The brain is at rest, the cells are on standby and allow the body to slow down all of its metabolisms. However, the lack of deep sleep causes significant long-term psychological disorders, such as: aggressive behavior, mood disorders, loss of bearings, etc.

REM sleep in babies

From birth to 9 months, the rhythm of the baby's sleep differs from the adult's sleep. The circadian rhythm which means the biological rhythm and equal to 24H is not yet acquired and this will be done throughout its growth. The newborn can sleep between 16H and 20H per day and intermittently. It has several sleep cycles, the duration of which varies from 50 to 60 minutes, and each of its cycles is divided into 2 cycles.

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The first is an agitated phase, the toddler moves, he is toned and can make noises because his breathing is irregular. One could also believe that he is not sleeping, his eyes are sometimes open and he can make movements but on the contrary he is indeed asleep. This part of sleep corresponds to REM sleep.
Secondly, it goes into a calmer phase, which in the future corresponds to slow-wave sleep. The newborn is calm, his breathing is regular and his eyes are tightly closed.These 2 phases are important for its development, the paradoxical sleep of the baby allows the brain to be built and the slow sleep of the baby helps with physical restructuring and to the creation of growth hormones.
From 2 months, the sleep cycle changes it is prolonged and around 3 months restless sleep becomes paradoxical sleep. At 6 months, it represents 35% of REM sleep, so at 9 months it will disappear from daytime sleep. Sleep is an important step for the baby, you have to be careful to respect it.

Sleep and alcohol

Sleep in the face ofalcohol can be disturbed, it is harmful for REM because it will reduce this phase of sleep. All the more, if the consumption of alcohol occurs before bedtime, sleep will be more restless and of poorer quality. Then occur insomnia, sleep apnea syndromes, increased snoring. It is advisable to moderate your alcohol consumption before going to bed to reduce the harmful effects.

Sleep and antidepressants

People who take  antidepressant, may also experience difficulties with REM sleep it can range from drowsiness to 'insomnia. This is why the patient must be followed by his doctor in order to recover a better quality of sleep.

Sleep and weight

Lack of sleep can have an impact on obesity because they are closely related. In case of disturbed sleep, ghrelin will be produced in excess and will encourage you to eat more, even if the body really needs it. Today, scientists distinguish between ghrelin, which activates appetite, and leptin, which is responsible for satiety. But lack of sleep would have direct consequences on the synthesis of these hormones: ghrelin is produced in abundance, while leptin is produced less and will affect weight gain.

Sleep and snoring

Snoring is a loud sound emitted when air passes through the airways. There are several causes that cause snoring such as being overweight, consumption of alcohol and tobacco, medication (taking sleeping pills) , nasal congestion, slanted nasal septum, sleeping position, etc...

The snoring can occur during the different phases of sleep. At the time of deep sleep it may be more intense unlike REM sleep which at that time may cease. Depending on the sleep phase, snoring can change, but it is best to first determine the cause. We must not neglect sleep apnea which is quite common.

Sleep is an important step for humans. Whether from birth to adulthood, it is therefore necessary to have a good quality of life in order to have a good quality of sleep and to be in good health.

Say stop to sleep apnea and snoring!
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