Apnée du sommeil

Sleep apnea: definition, mechanism and treatment

Sleep apnea: definition and types of apnea

Sleep apnea affects a number of people, particularly men ( 1-5% of the male population). How to define sleep apnea? It is a disorder of nocturnal ventilation. During the night abnormal stops occur breathing. These arrests result from obstructed airways. A person suffering from sleep apnea will present on average 600 respiratory arrests overnight. Stopping breathing deprives the subject of oxygen thus react the brain that wakes it up. Of course, these respiratory arrests are not without consequences and cause great fatigability in the patient.

Very often the patient is not aware of his pathology and consults a doctor for insomnia or even daytime hyper-somnolence. It is therefore the state of great fatigue that pushes the patient to consult. Apnée du sommeil docteur

The medical consultation will then make it possible to detect the presence of sleep apnea. But still it is necessary to know what type of apnea it is. Sleep apnea can be simple, moderate or even severe. The choice of this classification will depend on IAH ( apnea index) presented: between 5 and 15 it will be a simple apnea, between 16 and 30 a moderate and beyond 30 a severe.

Obstructive apneas can also be differentiated from central apneas. What is an obstructive apnea? These are situations where we are in the presence of a -sleep-lapnee" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">pharynx narrowing Partial obstruction will induce restricted and difficult air passage, total obstruction will inevitably cause apnea because the air no longer passes. This muscle relaxation, is the most common form of apnea.

Finally, less common, central sleep apnea results from a dysfunction of brain control. The brain no longer forces muscles to contract during breathing.

Sleep apnea: symptoms and risk factors.

Sleep apnea causes a large number of symptoms. The first symptom is fatigue. The repeated respiratory arrests disturb the patient's sleep and cause him to become very tired during the day. This fatigue can eventually cause a state depression. Sleep apnea can also lead to headaches on waking despite a "long night's sleep".

Loud snoring is one of the major symptoms of sleep apnea.

More than a state of great fatigue, some patients also experience a state of drowsiness as a symptom. This drowsiness can occur at any time during the day and therefore represents a danger to subject.

Sleep apnea is also responsible for cardiovascular disease. The respiratory arrests deprive the person of oxygen, the latter then wakes up suddenly. These repeated rude awakenings increase blood pressure and heart rate. 

Sleep apnea risk factor

Risk factors are also numerous and for the most part stem from an unhealthy lifestyle. Smoking and alcohol represent risk factors that can cause the onset of sleep apnea but also promote its development.

Overweight is the number one risk factor for sleep apnea. Other risk factors may be involved in the onset of the disease, we will cite the diabète de type II ou encore l'obstruction nasale. 

Sleep apnea: the different treatments

Sleep apnea can be cured by a number of treatments. As we have seen, lifestyle strongly influences the onset of sleep apnea. The first solution is therefore to avoid as much as possible the consumption of alcohol, tobacco or even sedatives.

One of the most prescribed treatments for sleep apnea is the mandibular advancement orthosis. A mandibular advancement orthosis allows, while maintaining the lower jaw in an advanced position, to free the passage of air at the pharynx. This reduces the obstructions encountered by the patient.

Back2Sleep® is a treatment for snoring and sleep apnea. This brace which exists in different sizes adapts perfectly to the patient. It helps to maintain regular breathing and helps the subject to find a restful sleep.

It is possible to overcome sleep apnea by using a continuous positive airway pressure device. The CPAP device comes in the form of a nasal or oral-nasal mask, to be worn at night. The CPAP mask is connected to a small box. It is through this box that air is blown into the patient's airways.

Finally, it is also possible to have surgery. But it should be noted that surgery does not will only be indicated if other treatments have failed.

Say stop to sleep apnea and snoring!
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