For children, getting enough deep sleep increases growth hormones and allows muscles to develop normally. For adults, it helps the body recover strength while refreshing the brain. However, there are many causes that can disturb sleep. Dyssomnia is one of the most common sleep disorders.
Dyssomnia refers to a sleep disorder caused by the quantitative and qualitative deterioration of sleep. Every day, an adult person requires between 7 and 8 hours of time to sleep. If this duration is not respected, there will be an alteration of sleep that can cause discomfort in daily life. Dyssomnia leads to several serious consequences, such as depression, general fatigue, risk of obesity, various infections, reduced efficiency of the immune system, various diseases, etc., which impact our health, and even our entire life.
- insomnia due to sleep deficiency or insufficiency,
- hypersomnia caused by excessive sleep,
- circadian rhythm disorders.
Dyssomnia: sleep deficiencies
In general, insomnia is caused by lack of sleep. This is the most common sleep disorder encountered in adults. Insomnia can affect most people. It prevents an individual from having good sleep. It comes either from an impossibility to fall asleep at the usual bedtime, or from frequent awakenings during the night, or from early morning awakenings. Lack of sleep during the night can also cause insomnia.
Several elements are recognized as contributing factors to sleep deficiency or insomnia. The most frequently encountered are stress, lifestyle, illness, anxiety, drugs, taking certain medications, etc.
Dyssomnia from sleep deficiencies comes in many types, including:
- sleep onset insomnia, also known as evening insomnia or inability to fall asleep easily;
- adjustment insomnia which is related to disturbing factors such as illness, noises, depression, etc.;
- secondary insomnia caused by mental illness, medication, drug addiction, intoxication, etc.;
- paradoxical insomnia resulting in impaired daytime wakefulness and which can last up to 1 month;
- Idiopathic insomnia which is caused by disruption of the sleep-wakefulness system. This is a rare case that can occur from childhood.
Insomnia can cause adverse consequences, such as skin aging skin damage, accident risk, loss of concentration, memory loss, heart disease, risk of diabetes, risk of cancer, etc. for those concerned.
Dyssomnias: dormant excesses
When sleep is qualitatively and quantitatively impaired, the person is said to be affected by dyssomnia. This disease encompasses all disorders that impair sleep. Insomnia, caused by lack of sleep, as well as hypersomniac disorder, also called "excess sleep", are among these disorders.
Hypersomnia refers to the neurological disease resulting from deep sleep. People with this disorder are unable to get up in the morning. They are always tired during the day without being drowsy. Hypersomnia disorder is divided into two categories: idiopathic hypersomnia or primary hypersomnia and recurrent hypersomnia. These 2 types of disorder have the same factors and symptoms, but differ according to the duration during which they manifest.
Idiopathic hypersomnia is a term designating a neurological disorder resulting from permanent daytime hypersomnolence. The individual concerned never feels awake. The disease is manifested by premature bedtimes and later sunrises. Waking up can be very difficult and can be accompanied by confusion, automatic behavior, slow thinking, etc.
As for recurrent hypersomnia, it is a rare case of hypersomniac disorder. It is recognized by the existence of episodes of varying duration, where the individual finds sleep of a much longer duration than usual or normal. These episodes can last a few days or even 2 weeks.
Like all other diseases, excessive sleep or hypersomnia have harmful effects on our health, namely: cardiovascular risks, sleep disorders, risks of overweight or obesity, diabetes, headaches, head, etc.
Dyssomnias: circadian rhythm disorders
Circadian rhythm disorder is due to a disruption of the biological clock . All diurnal living things require good sleep at night and are designed to be active during the day. Individuals suffering from this type of disorder feel very tired during the day. Circadian rhythm disorder occurs due to several factors, such as night work, illnesses, taking medication, jet lag, etc. The affected individual will have great difficulty falling asleep or waking up at the times they want. The trouble comes in different types, such as:
- phase delay syndrome: this is the most common case in young people and adolescents. They tend to fall asleep late and get up later. However, this rhythm is incompatible with their daily activities.
- Advanced phase syndrome: this disorder often affects the elderly. The latter will be unable to stay awake at night and wake up prematurely.
- Jet lag: the disruption is often noticed during travel. The trouble stems from the shift caused by time zones.
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