Myocardial infarction is caused by a blockage of an artery in the heart. This artery is called the coronary artery. The heart tissue no longer being irrigated dies. This infarction can be more or less consequent. It can indeed lead to simple heart failure or lead to cardiac arrest. Different signs make it possible to determine a myocardial infarction. Many complications can emerge following a myocardial infarction. Emergency or long-term treatments exist to treat myocardial infarction.
Myocardial infarction: definition and causes
As mentioned, people with sleep apnea usually encounter cardiovascular disorders. Myocardial infarction is one such disorder. But what is myocardial infarction? It is a more or less consequent destruction of the heart muscle. How does this happen? It could be, for example, a clot preventing blood from circulating in the coronary artery. Concretely, when this happens, the heart stops pumping
This pathology is particularly widespread. In France each year, 120,000 people have a myocardial infarction. It is accepted that in ten percent of cases, myocardial infarction turns out to be fatal. Myocardial infarction is more like for men than women. It should also be noted that men are more prone to this heart attack from the age of sixty.
It is important to know the causes of myocardial infarction. Most of the time it is fatty plaques called "atheroma" which gradually obstruct the arteries and in particular the coronary artery.
There are a large number of risk factors. Some of these risk factors can be avoided by the patient: we can cite smoking, being overweight or even a sedentary lifestyle. As we have already noted, myocardial infarction affects more men than women and advanced age the promotes. Excessive alcohol consumption and diabetes also favor this pathology. Finally the cholesterol levels and stress are two determining risk factors in myocardial infarction.
Myocardial Infarction: Signs and Complications
The signs of myocardial infarction are numerous and some are particularly typical. In order to apprehend them, aclinical examination is necessary. First of all, it is important to note that as a general rule, a patient who is the victim of a myocardial infarction will present pain for at least half an hour, even without exertion. In this situation, it is imperative to consult very quickly.
On auscultation, the practitioner will find heart sounds that are muffled as well as lung rales. These pulmonary rales are witnesses of acute heart failure. Signs of shock will be noted. These include: sweating and abnormally low blood pressure. Typical pain will be localized to the abdomen especially in the upper part. The patient will also feel pains in the chest. This pain will spread to the shoulder then the arm and will even affect the jaw.
These pains may be accompanied by nausea and vomiting and in some cases fever.
The main complication of myocardial infarction is cardiac arrest. The speed of treatment will obviously make the difference . What are the symptoms of cardiac arrest?
The patient quickly loses consciousness and no longer responds. He is not breathing or has incomplete breathing movements. In this situation, you have to act immediately. Other less serious but nevertheless very restrictive complications can appear following a myocardial infarction. We can cite heart rhythm disorders. We will talk then cardiac arrhythmia. The patient may also present with a chronic heart failure and may be subject to new episodes of myocardial infarction.
Myocardial infarction: Treatments
Following a myocardial infarction, it is imperative to perform a complete cardiac assessment for two reasons. On the one hand, because this will allow to assess the lesions and on the other hand because it will provide a diagnosis.
What tests should be performed after a myocardial infarction? An echo-cardiogram which will make it possible to apprehend the left ventricular function, a rhythmic holter in order to diagnose a rhythm disorder and in certain cases a stress test.
After carrying out a complete assessment, it is important to limit the risk factors. It is as well often to stop or limit the consumption of alcohol and cigarettes and to remedy overweight.
After presenting a myocardial infarction, treatments will be put in place. A first treatment will be carried out in the first resuscitation. This treatment is called "thrombolytics" and aims to dissolve clots. This treatment must be prescribed very soon after the episode of myocardial infarction (6 hours maximum).
Once the emergency has passed, priority will be given to monitoring the patient. The lifestyle must be excellent and physical rehabilitation will be recommended.
With regard to long-term treatments, they will be used for irrigation and oxygenation.
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